CNC Lathe making chips and choosing a video editor

I guess I should have chosen a curvy part instead of this boring one… maybe the next time.

Now some words about my search for a decent linux video editor. I did my previous video using OpenShot; It was a bit crashy and I really don’t like the way it handles titles. So after checking some reviews and doing some tests, I finally settle on Kdenlive, which is really nice.

Big fly cutter

Here is a very simple but highly useful accessory I made from a 13x13x40 mm block and a broken end mill.

flycutter-01 flycutter-02And here’s a 76x140mm flated surface.

flycutter-03There was some vibration due to the unbalanced rotating mass, something that I fix later adding a simple counterweight. And of course I took advantage of a not-perfectly trammed head to get a nice finish (about 15um less in the middle, not bad).

Finally a picture showing how useful is the side plate.

flycutter-04

UPDATE (01/09/13)

In the last working round I just note some upset behavior related to, I guess, thermal expansion. The DOC can increase, easily, 0.02mm after a couple of millimiters of feed. You can learn to deal with this, but now I think that a bigger mass cutting bit it’s a better idea (of course this doesn’t matter if you use coolant). Anyway, no matter what flycutter you use, I think a double finishing pass it’s always a good idea (0.03 and then 0.02 mm for example).

Cutting Thick Stock

Soon I will need to cut some 1″x3″ aluminum bars. I know the right tools to cut thick aluminum bars and plates are things like this:

horizontal_band_saw vertical_band_sawBut of course I can’t have these monsters into my small apartment.

Some guys say you can turn a wood band saw into a metal band saw adding some speed reducer and changing the blade. In fact, up to this point I’ve used  a cheap wood band saw as is to cut thick aluminum stock without problems (up to 1″). But I wanted something more appropriate and smaller, so I took a look at the Proxxon band saw.

Proxxon band saw

At first it seemed perfect, but after reading some amazon comments, I discarded this option (easy to understand if you read the specs: 85 watts; my wood saw it’s 250 watts). So I bought a Starret St1010 portable band saw, and start to convert it into a vertical band saw. Here’s the work.

band_saw-01 band_saw-02 band_saw-03 band_saw-04  band_saw-05band_saw-06band_saw-07

All was going well, but then I realized the damn thing was too noisy, at least to be used into an apartment. Here are the noise measurements at 1 mt of the running saws:

  • Cheap wood saw: 71 db
  • Starret metal saw: 84-89 db (it has variable speed)
  • My vacuum cleaner at full speed: 84 db

Noise reason was simple… metal gears inside. Tough at low speed noise level it’s similar to my vacuum cleaner, it’s much more annoying.  So, I will better off ordering a metal saw blade for my wood saw, and left my converted Starret saw into a corner, at least for now :cry:.

Going Horizontal

Today I finished a very simple accesory that turns the standard sherline mill into an horizontal mill, within seconds. It’s designed so it doesn’t get in the way of the table, so it can remain installed.

I don’t know why I didn’t figured this before… so nice. Will upload drawings in a week or so.

Drawings

This isn’t exactly the design I build, as I didn’t had a plate stock of the required size. This version cover all the riser block side.

Update (Jan 2014): By the time I’ve used this accessory I’ve found it has a design flaw; it flex more than expected (It had been very, very useful, tough). So now I think a 3/4″ plate should have been better.

Low Profile Vise

A tipical problem: I need to mill a slightly long part, let’s say, a 10x10x130mm bar. Sure, you can use the good Sherline vise and clamp the part by the middle, but vibration at the ends of the part is a problem.  So after getting inspired by this and this , I decided to build my own wide low profile vise.

Start point

First, I bought a pair of used step jaws. They are really high precision, and include two stop options. As I understand this jaw types are for Kurt type vises, the big brand in professional vises (of course my vise will be a joke compared to one of this vises, but that’s not the point).

Design

Design specs were:

  • Low profile
  • 4″ wide
  • Interchangeable jaws (must fit my Kurt 4″ jaws of course).
  • Should have stops.
  • Should be able to be used in the X or Y axis.
  • Should not require clamps for installing.
  • For light duty work (well, this cover Sherline use).
  • And, of course, a simple design.

I choose 1/2″ tooling plate for the base and 1″ square bar stock for jaw supports. As always, after some draft drawings I began the building process.

Building

Main steps in building this thing were:

  • Cutting to size and squaring the base plate
  • Milling T slots (easier than what I expected).
  • Cutting and squaring jaw supports.
  • Drilling a lot of holes (harder than what I expected).

Some parts appears in previous posts. Here are some pics.

And here’s the assembled and installed vise.


Testing

After clamping an aluminum bar I found a problem: front and back supports lift about 0.5mm after tightening; it seems aluminum over aluminum lifts, but t-nuts remains fixed. So after that I add a key to the fixed jaw support (previous pics show that); at least this will allow to keep alignment.

Installing it’s a bit tricky, as two of the clamping screws go below the back jaw support.

How much clamping force? I don’t know, but at least I was able to raise the whole mill holding the clamped bar with both hands (I was not able to take a picture of this). That’s enought to me. Here are my vise and the Sherline one.

Tightening looks, at first, a bit troublesome, as this requires to tighten 8 screws, but anyway it’s a less than a minute process, so I can live with that.

Final Toughts

Sure, this is a light duty vise, but I love the step jaws, the stops and the fact it’s low profile.

I must admit I would have like a larger back for the movable jaw support, but space limitations led me to the actual design.

This vise can be used to clamp small flat plates, but a simpler solution for this are Dave Hylands Fly Cutting Clamps. They are the best practical design I’ve seen fot this type of clamps, so for sure I will anotate this in my long list of some-day-I-will-do projects.

Chuck spider

The problem

Sometimes I have to turn small or thin parts in the lathe (a coin or a small pin, for example). There are two common problems with this parts: how to clamp them and how to get repeatibility. If my concern it’s not clear look the parts I need to finish.

Sure, I can clamp one of this parts in the chuck, but I can’t release it and place back in the same position.

The Solution

There are several alternatives to this issue. I choose what’s is called a chuck spider, something like a support between the chuck and the part. As the part get supported by the spider, you can get off the part, measure, and place back in the same position easily.

Design and Build

Instead of making only one spider and adjust deepth through a spacer, I opt for making three spiders: 2,5mm, 5mm and 7.5mm. Let’s the images tell the history.

To finish the cutting-off side of every spyder, I made an improvised shellac chuck (or “wax chuck”) , a classic watchmaker’s technique (btw, this is also a posible solution to the original problem!). I don’t have shellac wax, so use carnauba wax instead; this works fine for me. Here’s the finished set.

Testing

To avoid chuck jaws mark the aluminum surface usually I fold the complete part in strip of aluminum sheet, but this time I wanted to try something different, so I design and made some sort of reusable jaw pads.

Nice!

Overall

What can I say. Every Sherline user should have a spider, they are so great!.

Using the wax chuck was so nice that now I’m thinking on making one with self heating, so you dont have to take off the chuck and put on the stove to put/extract the parts.

I will add some drawings soon for the spider and the pads.

Using the Sherline Angle Plate

One of the things that I would love to have it’s a horizontal milling machine. Sometimes, when working on a part, I find myself thinking “this would be easier if I had a horizontal mill”. I mean something like this:


A guy sells this beauty on ebay, but he doesn’t ship to my country. Here’s another. Sure, you can buy the conversion kit from Sherline, but changing from one setup to another it’s way too much trouble. Meanwhile an alternative solution it’s the Sherline angle plate (here’s the short version):

Sherline angle plate (short) This can be bolted directly into the milling table, but a better solution it’s to make four tapped holes in the tooling plate. To clamp the parts to the angle plate I build a clamping kit composed of a stop strip and a “cross” clamp.

As you can see, angle plate squareness it’s not perfect:

The gap it’s not as bad as it seems in the picture: at the top there’s about 0.050 mm. Some strips of aluminum foil will help to compensate this (finding how much it’s a trial-error process).

My first attempt to align the stop bar was to use an indicator over the headstock, but a square was more reliable in the end (you can guess why).

Here is the part ready for the face mill:

And here’s the final result:

That is.

Micro table saw

This long desired project is finally finished. Now I can clean-cut metal, plastics or wood stock easily and with minimal loss. I think everyone working on small parts must have one.

The idea

Some time ago I was working on my cnc lathe and get tired of my options to cut stock, so I decided I needed a mini table saw before continue. Proxxon micro table saw seemed to be exactly what I needed, but I choose to make my own.

My start point was a 1/4″ 51x17cm aluminum plate, a 1/15 hp ac/dc 5000 rpm Dayton motor, three proxxon saws, and, of course, the Proxxon micro saw as a reference design. I got three of these motors for $16.00 plus shipping on ebay (well, I order two, but, the seller forgot to ship them at time and kindly add a third). Please don’t ask for motor a source; the original seller isn’t available anymore.

Building

I began designing key elements: the table itself, the motor mount and the saw rotating support. Once I build these parts and put them together I got a functional saw, that help me to build the rest of the parts.

One of the tricky steps was to cut the aluminum rectangle to size and square it. As the length was larger than sherline table travel, a two step mill and hand filing was required.

Fence was made of delrin and aluminum, and has two locking screws. Assembly allow some degree of adjusting so delrin guides slides without play over aluminum.

Angle guide was made of delrin and a 1.5×12 mm brass bar. Tough at first I thought that was really unnecessary, it’s a must to cut bars.

Timing pulleys and belt are 3mm pitch / 9mm wide HTD, and were ordered at sdp-si.com, an awesome site. Here’s the order:

Part Number                  Quantity    Unit Price    Extension
————————————————————————
A 6R23M040090                1        $6.13/Each    $6.13
A 6Z23-017DF0908            2        $5.19/Each    $10.38

A dust receptacle it’s a must, as without it you get a mess of chips lying around. I build this using 3mm policarbonate (Lexan) sheet and 1.6m screws.

Table support was made using hard some wood I salvaged from an old stepladder.

Tough you can make thumb screws on the lathe, I choose to buy them on ebay. I got a bunch of 30 (three types) for $5,74 plus shipping from a Uk seller. They are nice.

Testing

I got three proxon saws: for wood, hss for metal and carbide tipped. The first only works for soft wood; for hard woods carbide tipped must be used. The hss one works great for thin metal sheets, but clogs on thick plates. With the carbide tip saw I can cut 9.5mm (3/8″) of aluminum, tough not really fast (the saw clogs a bit). In this test I cut 6.5mm (1/4″) without problems:

Tough a little more of power would be welcomed, the motor seems to do the work. Something not clear to me is that Proxxon states this cutting capacities for their saw:

   Wood                                        5/16″ (8mm)
   Plastic & Circuit Boards     1/8″ (3mm)
   Non-Ferrous Metals           1/16″ (1.5mm)

tough it uses a 1/10 hp motor while mine is only 1/15 hp, and I can cut 6.5mm aluminum (more than four times proxxon capacity). Maybe it has to do with lack in rigidity or something else.

Overall

There was a lot of work in designing and building this tool, but was worth, and now is one of the main  tools in my shop. And it seems to have better cutting capacities (an precision, I guess) than the Proxxon one.

Draft drawings are available if someone is interested.

Update

Here are the drawings for the main parts. Please note that these are not detailed building instructions.; no tolerances, no part lists,  etc.

Some things to note:

  • I use R4 bearings: 1/4×5/8x.196 (metric 6.35×15.875×4.98). Bearings, bearing housings and spindle must fit without or very little play. Thread-locking fluid may be used in bearing housings if any play.
  • Spindle axis length should be some less than nominal (40*) to reduce axial play (this was a trial-error to me).
  • Pulley set screws must use thread-locking fluid. Without this, screws may get loose (this happened to me, not a nice experience).
  • The motor mounting block was designed to fit a specific motor.
  • I think the angle guide system can be enhaced by cutting a guide with a T profile (4th pic, below). A dovetailed guide would be even better.
  • A thicker table (let’s say, 3/8) would be another enhacement.

CAD drawings HERE.

Making Gears

The Idea

Gears are by far the most used transmission elements in mechanical systems. Though you can design and build a lot of robotic toys without dealing with gears, more sophisticated (cool!) designs will claim the use of specific gears. At this point you have three options:

  • Use a collection of scratch gears: not really an option, as you will end up with a lot of different and incompatible gears of random sizes.
  • Buy: commercial gears are costly, so you will need a lot of money.
  • Make your owns: that requires special tools, but gives you more design freedom.

Having the capacity of design and build gears opens the hobbist a lot of possibilities to build and play. I always wanted to have the capacity to make gears, and tough I have a Sherline mill,  It’s not enough. So I decided to pick a simple method and build my own tools, and here’s the report.

The basic idea was to adapt a lathe spindle to work as indexer driven by a stepper motor. The motor must have enough torque (static) to allow cutting small gears without undesired vibrations; for large gears or other works a lock will be required.

Of course, this tool will allow to make only involute gears, the most common gear type, but they will suffice for most cases.

Design

I started ordering a Taig lathe spindle, arbor and mounting for about $80, and from my stock I got two plastic sprockets, a belt and a stepper motor. And of course, some aluminum (6061) was needed.

The design was done around this parts. Main concerns were:

  • As sprockets were plastics, mounting bushings were required.
  • To allow rotating in the Z axis, the mounting base required some type of round clamp system.
  • A manual block system was added to fix the spindle when needed.
  • I made the motor mount adjustable in the vertical to adjust belt tension.

The belt system provide a a 3.6:1 reduction, so driving the motor in half step mode gives a minimum of 0.25 degrees per step or 1440 steps per revolution, enough for me. Here is the acad drawing.

And here are the finished parts.

Black anodizing gives a cool look. The belt I had at hand was a bit more than the required length, and making a padding block was more cheap than buying a new belt.

The circuit

The motor was nema23 size, 4 volt ! 1 amp. I designed a board around a PIC16F628, using a simple cmos motor driver scheme. Minidin connectors were used for power, motor and serial port (I hate db9 ones).

To drive the motor in half step mode, a minimum of 2 amps were required, and a power supply I got from an old ethernet switch some years ago was handy. Tough the 5 volt line has a nominal 5 amp capacity, the voltage drops to 4 volts when the motor is energized (two coils), so chopping was not required. 12 volts line was used to feed a 5v regulator for the logic.

I write the pic program in assembly, a bit tedious work, but the final code was pretty. The system work this way:

  • Button 1: step forward
  • Button 2: step backward
  • Button 3: step size decrease
  • Button 4: step size increase
  • Buttons 3,4 (at the same time): reset.
  • Backlight on 3 seconds after a button is pressed.

Here is the set.

I plan to build a plastic box at some time, as a small chips from the lathe can roast the board.

Preparing

Before using the indexer, some stuff was needed:

  • A support arbor: I modify a taig arbor to support small gears.
  • A cutting tool: I don’t like the sherline gear cutting tool, so made one that uses small hand made inserts.
  • A reference center to calibrate headstock Z axis.
  • A plastic gear used as pattern to make the cutting inserts: I choose one from my bag of scrap gears.
  • The virgin gear part.

The cutting tool I’ve made support two inserts, so this way shape imprecisions in the inserts are canceled a bit (at least in theory). To make the inserts, a 3/16″ tool blank is grinded until, in front of some light, the cutter match the plastic gear. Then the tip of the tool bit is cutted with a dremel cutting wheel. A small grinding wheel can help to give final finish.

As noted in the image, I’ve done and extra insert, to do a prior cutting before using the shape-matched ones, saving my hard-to-made gear cutters from wearing.

The choosed pattern gear has the following parameters:

  • m = 0.6 (metric “module”)
  • Z = 40 (tooth number)
  • Pitch diameter = Dp = m*pi*z =
  • Pitch diameter = m*z/2 = 24
  • Outside diameter Do = D + 2m = 25.2
  • Tooh depth = ht = 2.2 * m = 1.33 (there are slight variations of this formula)

Module was deducted using the formula m = Do / (Z + 2). In this case, measured outside diameter was 5.21, giving m = 0.6. Note that if the module has more than one decimal may be it be a inch gear. I found that there are no business standard in scratch gears; sometimes two gears that seems to be compatible at first doesn’t match at all when you take measurings. Please note that the pitch diameter is important as states the distance beetwen two mate gears: for pitch diameters D1 and D2, there must be an inter-axis distance of D1/2 + D2/2.

A First Gear

The first step was to fix the Z axis using the center.

Later, the blank gear is centered in the arbor using a dial indicator. This is tedious, as when you tighten the screw, the blank easily get out of center.

Here is the first cutting pass. Cutting was a lot more soft than what I expected.

After the this prior cut, final inserts are installed and the Y axis is calibrated. Cutter-blank distance is reseted, and several rounds are done until reach the 1.33mm calculated advance. Note that both inserts must reach the same distance from the spindle axis, so this requires to fix one and adjust the other using some reference surface.

An here is the result. Not bad. Deburring of front cutting side was done using a knife, something a bit difficult (second image).

A simple verification: the size of two engaged gears must be 25.2+25.2-1.2= 49.2. Actual value is around 49.25, so it appears there was a slight oversize; then I took another measuring, using two small steel rods: the plastic gives 25.05, and the metal 25.01. So it appears that is the plastic the oversized one, at least in part.

gears_161.jpg

Of course this isn’t a high precission high endurance gear, but it’s great for the hobbist.

Overall

Making gears this way requires a lot of setup time, but the whole process is pretty simple: calibrate, set cutting depth, go forward and backward, rotate a step, go forward, etc. I do several rounds, but now I think that for this gear size only two rounds are required: a heavy and a finish cut, using the same inserts. Also I think that only one good shaped insert will do the work.

As mentioned, a critical point here is the shape of the cutting tool, so this method will work only if you have enough skills to give your cutting tool the gear tooth shape. As an alternative, you can buy gear cutting modules, but these are costly and one unit covers only a range of tooth (z) at one pitch size (m).

Note the with this method you can’t make a reduction gear from a single piece; for this, you have to make two assembly pieces. Anyway, reduction can be provided by the motor, so that’s not a issue.

One of my to-do things in my list is automate my mill, something that will decrease tooth cutting time to a breeze.

That wasn’t an easy work. The short way would had to buy the Sherline rotary table or indexing tool. Anyway, the tool works fine, at least for small gears. A now doing a gears seems to be a really easy task to me.

Update: source code here (you need MCP from microchip).